Early Ireland: 10000BC to 2000BC

The first people arrived in Ireland during the Stone age, about 8000-10000 years ago, probably from the area of present day Scotland. This was late, most of Europe had been peopled long before, but perhaps not surprising given Ireland’s remote location at the edge of the continent.

Nomadic Hunter Gatherers

The first Irish people were hunter gatherers, constantly on the move in search of food. Findings of stone and flint tools tell us that the population spread gradually from the North, first downwards along the Eastern seaboard, and then inland along river courses to the area of the Shannon River.

Simple pottery from this time has been found and evidence that the people lived in ‘portable’ dwellings constructed from sticks and covered with animal skins. They also made boats, not surprising since they arrived by sea and moved along rivers.

The Late Stone Age: Farming and Communities

Between 2000 and 5000 years ago, in the late stone age, Ireland had a thriving and growing population. Hunting for food was being replaced by farming, a practice brought to Ireland as new waves of people came and settled.

Ardgroom Stone circle

Ardgroom Stone circle

Excavations at Ceide Fields in Co Mayo are revealing fascinating details about the patterns of life of these people. Being able to eat without having to hunt meant that permanent dwellings became possible and communities began to grow up.

People started to move further from river courses, clearing forests in order to create more farming land, which suggests there was a large population in Ireland by this time.

The legacy left by these people is a truly remarkable one, more than 1500 remains of tombs, standing stones, dolmens, stone circles and passage graves, comprising some of the most important Megalithic sites in the World.

The Passage Tomb at Newgrange

The Megalithic Passage Tomb at Newgrange is an enormous and truly awe inspiring structure over 5000 years old, predating the Pyramids by more than 1000 years.

Archaeologists estimate that it took at least 20 years to build, with hundreds of labourers involved in its construction.

From the outside the mound appears as a kidney shaped mound of grass-covered earth, extending over an acre of land. It is surrounded by a wall and outside that a number of carved kerbstones. Over the entrance is a roof box, or small window-like opening, which allows light into a narrow passage about 70 ft long which leads to a cross shaped inner chamber.

In the days around the Winter Solstice, from December 17th to 23rd, the precise alignment of the roof box causes light from the rising sun to shine directly down the long passage and illuminate the normally pitch dark inner chamber.

The event lasts about 17 minutes and is not repeated at any other time of year.

The Bronze Age: Working Metal

By about 2500BC, metalworking had arrived in Ireland and copper and bronze implements, jewellery, shields, weapons and even musical instruments were created. Early metal pieces were basic, created using hollowed stone moulds; later ones were made using carefully constructed three dimensional clay moulds and were far from crude, displaying a skill and artistry that would be hard to match today.

Gold began to be used towards the end of this period and the creation of elaborate Gold vessels and jewellery continued for many centuries.

Where to visit in Ireland

Anyone with even a passing interest in Stone Age farming in Ireland will be enthralled by Ceide Fields in Co Mayo.

The passage tombs of Newgrange, Knowth and Dowth are a must. Less visited but just as worthwhile are a series of stone circles and other megalithic stone remains at Lough Crew.

There is a permanent exhibition of pottery, jewellery and other remains, including a boat dating from 4500BC and early musical instruments, from the Neolithic period at the National Museum in Dublin.

There are standing stones, stone circles and dolmans pretty much all over Ireland, but two notables are the Poulnabrone Dolman in the Burren, Co Clare and Browne’s Dolman in Co Carlow.

Published: December 19, 2008 | Updated: March 31, 2017 | Image Credits

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  • Rodney Daley says:

    What a wonderful time I had browsing through this information on Irish history I found so much information to present at a Daley family on July 27,28,29,2012.
    Thank you for giving me such an enthralling experience.
    Thankfully yours;
    Rod Daley

  • Micheal OMaille says:

    I’m sure you mean “where presentday Scotland” is today, since “Scotland” didn’t exist, as such, those many thousands of years ago. Incidentally, “Scotia” was the name given by the Romans to Ireland, earlier “Hibernia” – winter land, so when the Irish later colonized the territory known as Scotland today ( & formed alliances with the Picts, the local inhabitants back then ) the territory became known as Scotland, land of the Scotia, the Irish settlers, who brought their language & music & culture over with them. It can still be found in the Scottish Highlands — Argyle simply means “land of the Gael”, land of the Irish .
    Go raibh maith agaibh.

    • ash says:

      I thought the name Scotland is derived from the Royal armies of Princess “Scotia”, of Egypt?

    • Suzan Atkinson-Haverty says:

      Absolutely right Micheal. Now I ask you…are you related to Grace O’Malley? I caught the last name in Gaelic.

    • Suzan Atkinson-Haverty says:

      This reply is to ASH: You are wrong about where the name Scotland came from…Micheal is right on the money, with all his history! I have read all of this before and I know it! I have traveled to Ireland many times and have heard so much of Irelands history, and I also have read about Scotlands history, and if you ever did, you would learn this.

    • Thomas Lyne says:

      Legand has it,Scotia’s grave is in Foley’s glin co.Kerry lreland .

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